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www.kompas.com 印尼罗盘报

November 12 2017 二零一七年十一月十二日



November 12, 2017, www.Kompas.com, Indonesia

Kekuatan Asia dan Seni ala Zhu Wei
 
Bambang Asrini Widjanarko

KITA telah mahfum Asia abad ini menjadi kawasan yang menjadi kekuatan global penting. Bangsa Asia oleh banyak cendikia disebutkan telah menemukan konsep jati dirinya setelah 200 tahun dihegemoni oleh Barat.

Salah satunya, Kishore Mahbubani, seorang pemikir tangguh serta paling vokal bagi Asia yang menyebut bahwa selama ini bangsa Asia belajar dengan sangat keras atas masa lalunya dari Barat.

Kata Mahbubani, bangsa Asia telah mengalami transformasi “tujuh pilar kebijaksanaan Barat", yakni pasar bebas, meritokrasi, pragmatisme, Iptek, budaya damai, pendidikan, dan penegakan hukum. Ke-7 hal tersebut semuanya justru mulai ditinggalkan oleh sebagian bangsa Barat sendiri.

Dalam bukunya Asia Hemisfer Baru Dunia: Pergeseran Kekuatan Global ke Timur yang Tak Terelakkan (2008), Mahbubani menyadarkan kita dengan tesisnya itu. Realitas di sejumlah negara –negara di Barat cenderung mengutamakan energi aktif untuk berkonflik di beberapa kawasan, kemudian menerapkan pasar bebas yang ambigu, seperti proteksi produk-produk tertentu.

Negara-negara Barat itu dalam beberapa dekade cenderung sistem demokratisasinya juga terinfeksi faham non-meritokrasi, yang menerima nilai-nilai kekerabatan dan perkoncoan ketimbang menggunakan kemandirian nalar yang obyektif.

Di Universitas Harvard pada 2015, dalam ceramahnya Mahbubani menegaskan lagi, mengutip data dari IMF bahwa pada dekade 80-an Amerika Serikat menyumbang perekonomian global sampai 25 persen. Sementara China hanya 2,2 persen.

Namun dalam kurun belum sampai 40 tahun pada 2014, ekonomi Amerika Serikat melemah, hanya menyumbang 16, 2 persen secara global.

Sementara China melaju pesat dengan sumbangsih 16, 3 persen. Dengan demikian Mahbubani dengan caranya sendiri ingin mengingatkan bahwa kondisi dunia sedang mengalami perubahan dramatis.

Selayaknya kebangkitan Asia tidak perlu ditanggapi dengan panik oleh Barat. Alih-alih memunculkan konflik, Barat semestinya menawarkan Timur berbagi tanggung jawab global dalam menangani berbagai problem bersama.

Seni China dan Zhu Wei

China sebagai raksasa Asia selain India dalam dunia seni kontemporer dunia juga sangat diperhitungkan di Barat. Ribuan tahun warisan ekspresi seni yang manifestasinya ekspresi -ekspresi kuat dari era berbagai dinasti memberi optimisme budaya China memberi sumbangsih pada seni kontemporer global.

Nama-nama seperti Zhang Xiaogang, Yue Minjun, Fang Lijun, Ai Wei Wei, Cai Guo-Qiang, sampai Zhu Wei sangat diperhatikan oleh museum maupun Galeri Nasional serta event bergengsi semacam Biennale Art global.

Tak ketinggalan institusi lelang komersil seperti Christie’s dan Sotheby’s sejak 3 dekade lalu memampangkan karya-karya seni kontemporer China.

Salah seorang perupa kuat China itu, Zhu Wei, yang dikenal dengan ciri lukisan tinta China kontemporer selama Agustus sampai awal Oktober 2017, berkesempatan berpameran solo di Museum Nasional Indonesia.

Sebagai perupa Zhu Wei selain suntuk melukis, ia dikenal menyukai menuliskan gagasan-gagasan artistiknya dan pandangan-pandangan isu-isu sosial dan politik pun sikap kritis terhadap negerinya. Buah pikirannya berserakan dalam esai-esainya yang diekspresikan di sejumlah media pernerbitan seni dan budaya serta buku-buku.

Zhu Wei bersama sejumlah pengamat, kurator, dan direktur museum di Asia mengungkap di buku pengantar pamerannya di Jakarta dengan judul sama dengan pamerannya: Virtual Focus.

Dalam buku tersebut menyebut keberadaan seni kontemporer China dan relasinya dengan budaya China. Yang berkaitan dengan masa revolusi kebudayaan, pasca-tragedi Tiananmen, imitasi seni China terhadap gaya modern Barat, juga seni kontemporer China yang berhadap-hadapan dengan seni kontemporer global.

Yang paling menarik adalah bagaimana pengamat seni Asia menggungkap bahwa Zhu Wei mewarisi teknik lukisan China klasik yang berusia 3.000 tahun sebagai sebuah sikap artistiknya hari ini, yakni teknik dan gaya tradisional Gongbi.

Gongbi menunjukkan pada kita, bahwa eksplorasi artistik tidak menanggalkan akar-akar kultur yang mengendap, bahkan ribuan tahun lamanya.

Zhu wei mendemontrasikan transformasi lukisan China klasik untuk mengadaptasi perkembangan seni kontemporer lokal di China. Bahkan menawarkan kekuatan lokalitas dalam dialog seni yang dikatakan dalam abad-abad sebelumnya hanya bagian dari “seni tradisional” yang kemudian kini dikatakan sebagai kekuatan ciri global yang datang dari China.

Dari pameran semi retrospeksi itu, kita bisa menilai seberapa jauh budaya China telah memengaruhi seniman-seniman China melihat dirinya sendiri, masa sekarang dan warisan ribuan tahun ekspresi visualnya.

Zhu Wei terlahir dari keluarga sederhana di pinggiran bagian barat pabrik baja Beijing, setelah keluar dinas militer. Ia mengejar karir artistiknya sebagai seniman.

Di sekitar akhir 90-an, namanya dikenal dan awal milenium baru memberinya kesempatan keliling dunia dan karyanya dipamerkan serta bisa dinikmati publik dunia di sejumlah 40 museum internasional.

Pameran solonya, Virtual Focus, yang merupakan kegelisahan perjalanan estetiknya semenjak dari 1987 sampai 2017 adalah sebuah pameran serial termutakhir yang dimulai dari Beijing Today Art Museum, Nanjing Academy of Art Museum, Museum of Contemporary Art Singapore sampai Museum Nasional di Jakarta.

Sebuah gerbang selamat datang menyambut seniman-seniman Indonesia yang membawa beragam budaya azali kita dari khasanah Nusantara, seperti seni-seni yang berakar dari budaya Arab, China, Melayu, dll yang telah mengendap pada diri kita.

 

 

 

 

November 12, 2017, www.Kompas.com, Indonesia

The Power of Asia and the Art of Zhu Wei
 
Bambang Asrini Widjanarko

The Asia has been a more important global force in this century, while the Asian, said by many scholars, to have found their identity after 200 years of hegemony by the West.

One of them, Kishore Mahbubani, one of the most vocal thinkers of Asia, mentioned that the Asian people have learnt very hard from the West in the past.

Mahbubani said that the Asian countries have undergone a transformation of the "seven pillars of Western wisdom”, including free markets, meritocracy, pragmatism, science and technology, culture of peace, education and law enforcement, all of which began to be abandoned by some Western countries.

In his “New Asia Hemisphere World: The Inevitable Global Shift to the East” (2008), Mahbubani uses his thesis to awaken us to see the reality that some Western countries tend to prioritize active energy for conflict in some areas, then implement an ambiguous free market, such as a market providing protection of certain products.

Western countries that have adopted democratic system for decades are also infected with non-meritocracy ideology, which accepts the values of kinship and cronyism rather than using objective reasoning and independence.

In his lecture at Harvard University in 2015, Mahbubani reiterated through citing data from the IMF that in the 1980s, the United States contributed 25 percent to the global economy, while China was only 2.2 percent.

But after less than 40 years in 2014, the US economy has weakened to account for only 16.2 percent globally.

While China rose rapidly with a contribution of 16.3 percent. Mahbubani wants to remind us that the global conditions are undergoing dramatic changes.

The awakening of the Asia should not make the West panic. Instead, the West can share the global responsibility with the East to deal with common problems other than generating conflict.

Chinese Art and Zhu Wei

As an Asian giant besides India, the contemporary art of China is also highly regarded in the West. The artistic expression that has been inherited for thousands of years, and shows strong characteristics of dynastic era, is the contribution of Chinese culture to the contemporary art world.

Names such as Zhang Xiaogang, Yue Minjun, Fang Lijun, Ai Wei Wei, Cai Guo-Qiang, and Zhu Wei are well regarded by museums, National Galleries, as well as prestigious events such as the global Biennale Art.

Not to mention that the commercial auction houses such as Christie's and Sotheby's have displayed Chinese contemporary art since three decades ago.

As one of the most influential Chinese artists, Zhu Wei is known for his adopting Chinese ink painting into the contemporary art scene. From August to early October 2017, his solo exhibition was held at the National Museum of Indonesia.

In addition to painting, Zhu Wei is known for writing down his artistic ideas and views of social and political issues with a critical attitude. His thoughts are published in his essays and expressed in many art and cultural medias and books.

Zhu Wei’s thoughts is revealed in his new catalogue as well, with the same title of his exhibition “Virtual Focus”, along with articles by art critics, curators, and museum directors in Asia.

In this catalogue, the existence of Chinese contemporary art and its relationship with Chinese culture and revolution, the imitation of Chinese art towards modern western style, and how Chinese contemporary art face with global contemporary art are all mentioned.

The most interesting thing is, said by the Asian art critics, that Zhu Wei inherited the classical Chinese painting techniques Gongbi which has a history of 3,000 years, and introduced contemporary artistic attitude to it to form his own style.

His Gongbi shows us that artistic exploration does not strip off the roots of the culture accumulated for thousands of years.

Zhu Wei represents the possibility of the transformation of the classical Chinese painting into contemporary art. In previous centuries the power of local art was only part of the “traditional art”, however it’s now said to be a global characteristic force coming from China.

From the semi-retrospective exhibition, we can assess how much Chinese culture has influenced Chinese artists on the way to see themselves, the present, and the legacy of thousands of years of visual expression.

Zhu Wei was born from a modest family on the western outskirts of the Beijing steel mills, after leaving the military service. He pursued his artistic career as an artist.

Around the end of the 90's his name was known, in the beginning of the new millennium, he had the opportunity to travel around the world, and his work was exhibited and enjoyed by the world's public in more than 40 international museums.

His solo exhibition, Virtual Focus, which is an aesthetic journey of his works since 1987 to 2017, and an up-to-date series of exhibits touring from Today Art Museum in Beijing, Art Museum of Nanjing University of the Art, Museum of Contemporary Art in Singapore, and National Museum in Jakarta.

The Zhu Wei exhibition is brightly lit and opening up, in the Indonesian context, the opportunity that our art comes to the world with its local cultural features. When this era comes, the world's contemporary art world will take a new look.

A welcome gate is open to the Indonesian artists who carries our precious diverse cultures from the archipelago to the world, such as art that is rooted in Arabic, Chinese, Malay, etc. which has settled on us.

The text of the interview:

Q: You love the traditional style of brushwork. Could you tell us what the role it plays in contemporary Chinese art?

A: After more than 2700 years of development, ink painting has developed into two kinds of modeling methods. One is the neat and orderly modeling method, and the other is the freehand approach close to the abstract painting, that is, fine brushwork and freehand style. All the narratives of ink painting, including calligraphy, are expressed through these two paradigms. Compared to the Western painting, both the paradigms have their own advantages and disadvantages, and mixed reviews.

Ink and wash paintings have been neglected since the late eighties of the last century, and even some local scholars have loudly denied them and put forward the idea that ink painting is in a dead end. In the past 30 years, with the popularization and dissemination of contemporary art and the continuous comprehension of Western contemporary art by local artists, and even more importantly, with the drying up of the imitation in creation, Chinese artists came to realize that the contemporization of local art is fundamental. It can be said that the fine brushwork and freehand style are the base to differentiate Chinese contemporary art from the Western and other kinds of art. It should be the protagonist of Chinese contemporary art in the future.

Q: You often depict blank faced figures in your paintings. Why?

A: They are numb people. China has a long history of feudalism, longer than any other country and nation in the world. After thousands of years of development, it has formed the language and behavior of everyone. In a feudal society people have two faces. In one hand the rulers need the people to create fortune and safeguard the fortune, on the other hand they forbid the people to express themselves or participate in the governance of the society or the country. Therefore people’s personality has been changed, the traits of which shaped all kinds of art language, including the local painting language which you can see in my works.

Q: Some of your paintings seem to be criticizing the changes in Chinese society. Can you explain that?

A: My work is to record the changes and the reincarnations of Chinese society. Such recordings and descriptions have been portrayed and presented by many artists in the form of Western painting. Just like the artists you mentioned, I have shown the changes in Chinese society in the form of local painting, and since there are only a few artists who are currently doing so, my works are special and distinctive. In the three decades since China's Reform and Opening-up, the Chinese people described and reflected the current situation of Chinese society from a Western perspective, and it was easily accepted. Even people in mainland China have become accustomed to looking at ourselves in a Western way, and called it an international perspective. My work seems less fashionable, so it seems less convincing, but now this way of watching has shown signs of change. I am pleased with it.

Q: Can you explain the idioms of the Red Army in your works in the 90s and early 21st century?

A: I have used some lyrics by local rockers as inscriptions in paintings, and this is also the language that follows the specific style of ink painting. Our ancients liked to write poems or words on the screen to show the artist's literary accomplishments, and some even played Guqin or zither in front of the painting, so a contemporary artist can also put his favorite rock and roll lyrics into a work. This is an exploration.

Q: In your recent works in 2017, there are figures like Stalin and Chairman Mao. Is it to cherish the memory of the past?

A: It is not to cherish the memory of the past. It is the present status of China, as well as the future. These people and their thoughts have been shining light on all aspects of people's lives from generation to generation. Their image and language have become the most safe and satisfying statement, for they are effective and won’t be wrong in any way.

Q: In “Absolute Art” in 2015 and “Contemporary Chinese Art in 30 Years”, you put forward that the Chinese contemporary art is based on imitation of the Western art. Why?

A: The origin of Western contemporary art is rooted in the trends of contemporary thoughts after the Second World War. Philosophers represented by Nietzsche, Hegel, Russell, Sartre, Wittgenstein, Heidegger and others re-examined the relationship between the man and the nature and raised questions towards it. After the enlightenment of the three humanist thinkers Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio, the Italian Renaissance emerged. The three masters of the Renaissance should be these three, while Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael are only three outstanding representatives of painters. The same is true for contemporary art. Western contemporary artists are influenced by the contemporary philosophy, so that there are a large number of contemporary works that are different from the past.

China does not have our own philosopher who can lead contemporary trends of thought or art trends. How can we form our own contemporary art only with the linguists who translated the Western philosophy into Chinese? In the first contemporary art exhibition held in China Art Museum in 1989, the curator stood on the steps of the art museum loudly announced to the world, that in a short span of ten years, Chinese artists had finished the journey that the Western contemporary artists spent one hundred years on. This announcement shows everything.

Q: Can your ink painting be associated with the poetry of the old China?

A: Literati painting and poetic painting are synonymous with low level and amateur in creation. Any literati or scholar can paint some brushworks without hesitation. It is a way of getting cute, having nothing to do with artistic creation.

Q: Do you believe that contemporary art contains spiritual energy?

A: The outstanding works of contemporary art should contain a strong spiritual energy. Non-easel art, in particular, is the direct conveyor of ideas. Compared with the classical art, contemporary art is more easily accepted for its the interaction with audiences. Due to its low threshold, it can test the artist's ability of independent thinking. Compared with the classical art, the themes of contemporary art are heavy, and demands more on the viewers. Compared with the classical art, the creators of contemporary art should be a thinker, rather than a real life camera.

 

 

 

 

二零一七年十一月十二日,印尼罗盘报Kompas.com

亚洲力量与朱伟艺术
 
Bambang Asrini Widjanarko

本世纪的亚洲是一个重要的发展地区。经过西方200年的霸权,亚洲国家显然開始再次找回了自己的身份。

亚洲最有声望的思想家之一基肖尔·马布巴尼(Kishore Mahbubani)说,至今为止亚洲人一直在努力地向西方学习先进经验。

马布巴尼把這稱為“西方智慧的七大支柱”, 即:自由市场、精英主义、实用主义、科学技术、和平文化、教育和执法。事实上,西方的一些国家自身已开始放弃這些支柱了。

在他的著作“世界新亚洲霸权:全球力量转移到隐蔽的东方”(2008年出版)中,马布巴尼用他的文章唤醒人们:西方国家激起某些地区的冲突,以建立暧昧的自由市场,比如倾向于保护某些产品的自由市场。

近几十年来,采取民主制度的西方国家也感染了非精英领导体制的意识,人們逐渐接受任人唯亲的价值概念,而不是依靠能力和独立客观的价值体系。

2015年马布巴尼在哈佛大学的演讲中称,根据国际货币基金组织的数据,美国经济在80年代的全球贡献率达到25%,而中国只有2.2%。

但是到了2014年,在不到40年的时间里,美国经济贡献的百分比减少到仅占全球的16.2%。

而中国的贡献则快速进展到占世界的16.3%。于是,马布巴尼提醒人們,世界的格局正在经历戏剧性的变化。

亚洲的发展不应该引起西方的恐惧。西方应该和东方共同承担和处理全球各种问题,而不是产生新的冲突。

中国艺术与朱伟

中国作为除印度之外的亚洲巨人,其当代艺术在西方很有影响力。有着数千年历史的带有强烈王朝时代特征的艺术表达更是代表着中国文化为全球当代艺术所做的贡献。

中囯艺术家如张晓刚、岳敏君、方力钧、艾未未、蔡国强、朱伟都受到了博物馆、美术馆、国际双年展等的高度评价。

三十年前,商业拍卖机构如的佳士得和苏富比已开始展出当代中国的艺术作品。

朱伟是把中国水墨的特色帶進当代艺术界的中国最有影响力的艺术家之一。2017年8月至10月初,朱伟在印尼国家博物馆举办了個人展。

艺术家朱伟喜欢写下他的艺术思想和他對社会政治问题的观点与批评。他的思想在诸多艺术文化媒体和他的散文集中都有体现。

这次雅加达展览出版的同名画册“虚拟的焦点”中,即包括了许多亚洲批评家、策展人和博物馆负责人的文章。

这本画册亦提到中国当代艺术的存在及其与中国文化、革命时期的关系,以及中国艺术对西方现代风格的模仿,和面向全球当代艺术的中国当代艺术等。

最有趣的是亚洲艺术批评家所述的,朱伟继承了有3000年历史的古典中国绘画技法工笔,并引入今天的艺术态度,形成自己的风格。

他的工笔告诉我们艺术的探索不会剥夺几千年沉淀下来的文化根源。

朱伟展示了中国古典绘画转型进入当代艺术的可能性。在前几个世纪中本土艺术只能作为传统艺术的一份子存在, 而今在当代语境中则代表了全球化时代来自中国的特色力量。

在此次半回顾性质的展览中,我们可以了解中国文化是如何影响到中国艺术家对他们自己、对当下、以及对传承数千年的视觉表达的看法的。

朱伟出生于北京钢铁西郊一个平民家庭,部队退役之后。 他开始作为一个艺术家追求自己的艺术生涯。

大约在90年代末,朱伟的名字被人们所熟知,新千年后他开始环游世界,而今他的作品已经在全球40多个博物馆中展出和被公众欣赏。

朱伟的个展“虚拟的焦点”(Virtual Focus),是从北京今日美术馆、南京艺术学院美术馆、新加坡当代艺术馆、直至雅加达国家博物馆的一个巡回展,也是一场1987年至2017年的美学之旅。

朱伟的展览启发了印度尼西亚,使我们看到我们的具有本土文化特色的艺术可以如何被世界所接纳。当颠覆时代来临时,世界当代艺术也将迈入新的一页。

印尼文化源于阿拉伯、中国、马来等地,而世界的大门将为印尼艺术家所创造的多文化艺术瑰宝而敞开。

访谈原文:

问:你喜欢传统的工笔风格 – 它在中国当代艺术品内扮演著什麽角色?

答:水墨画经过两千七百多年的发展,形成两种造型方式,一种是延续下来的工整有序的造型方式,另一种是接近于抽象绘画的写意方式,即工笔画和写意画两种。水墨画的一切叙事包括书法皆通过这两种范式来表达。相比西方绘画,水墨画的这两种语言各有利弊,褒贬不一。

水墨画在进入上世纪八十年代末以来一直处于被忽视的位置,甚至有本土学者高调否定并提出水墨画穷途末路之说。三十年来,随着当代艺术的普及和传播,以及本土艺术家们对西方当代艺术的不断领悟,更重要的是创作上的模仿枯竭,返回头来开始认识到本土艺术当代化才是根本。可以说工笔画写意画是中国当代艺术有别于西方,有别于其它种种绘画之根本,它应该是今后中国当代艺术的主角。

问:你的工作常常描绘空虚的人物,为什么?

答:是麻木的人群。中国社会有超过世界上任何一个国家和民族的漫长的封建制度历史,几千年繁衍下来就形成了现实社会中人们的一言一行,包括文明规范的特征。封建社会的特征是人民具有两面性,统治者需要人民来创造财富,保卫财富,另一方面禁止人民表达参与社会和国家的治理,长此以往人们就形成了特有的带有极强社会属性的性格特征,这一特征形成了种种语言,其中包括本土绘画语言,也就是你在我作品中看到的。

问:你的一些绘画似乎在批评发中国社会的变化,可以解释一下吗?

答:我的作品是记录中国社会一点一滴的变化,以及轮回反复。这样的记录和描写有很多艺术家以西方绘画的形式加以描写展示,就像你提到的那些艺术家,我是以本土绘画的形式来展现中国社会的变化,因为目前这样做的艺术家很少,所以我的作品就显得特别和与众不同。中国改革开放三十年来,中国人以西方视角描写和反思中国社会现状,很容易被接受,甚至中国本土的民众已经习惯了以这种方式来审视自己,称之为国际视野,而我的作品就显得不那么时髦,因此显得欠缺说服力,但是,现在这种观看的方式已经有改变的迹象,我为之欣慰。

问:你九十年代和二十一世纪初的作品中,展示了红军的成语,可以解释一下吗?

答:我曾经用过本土摇滚乐手的一些歌词,作为作品的落款和题跋,这也是遵循水墨画所特有的语言方式。古人可以在作品创作完成之后题写一些诗或词在画面上以显示出艺术家的文学造诣,有的还要在作品前抚琴咏志,那么作为当代的艺术家是否也可以把自己喜欢的摇滚乐歌词放到作品中去,这是一种尝试。

问:在最近的2017作品中,展示了斯大林和毛主席这样的人物,這是緬懷过去吗?

答:不是缅怀过去,这是当下中国的现状以及未来,这些人和他们的思想一直在照耀着人们生活中的方方面面,影响着几代人,他们的形象和语言成为人们表达心声最顺手顺嘴且不会犯任何错误的有效方式。

问:你在2015年‘绝对艺术杂志’,“30年当代中国艺术” 中质疑当代中国艺术的基础是西方的模仿- 為什么?

答:西方当代艺术的起源是二战后当代思潮的兴起,包括哲学思潮在内,尼采,黑格尔,罗素,萨特,维根斯坦,海德格尔等等为代表的哲学家对人类社会进程人与自然的关系重新进行了反思,提出了问题。如同在但丁,彼特拉克,薄伽丘三位人文主义思想家的思想启蒙之后,出现了意大利文艺复兴,文艺复兴三杰指的是这三位,达芬奇,米开朗琪罗,拉斐尔只是在绘画上的三位杰出代表。当代艺术也是一样,西方的当代艺术家是受西方当代哲学思潮的影响进行的创作,以至于出现了大量的有别于以往的当代作品。

中国没有出现过自己的引领当代思潮和艺术思潮的哲学家,只有翻译西方哲学著作的语言学者,谈何形成自己的当代艺术。1989年在中国美术馆举办的首个当代艺术大展,策展人站在美术馆的台阶上高声向世人宣布,中国的艺术家们用短短的十年就走完了西方当代艺术一百年走过的路,这句话说明了一切。

问:你的水墨画可以和旧中国的诗情联系在一起吗?

答:文人画,诗情画意,是创作水品低下业余的的代名词,任何文人士大夫都可以不痛不痒的来两笔,属抖搂才华和小机灵的一种方式,与艺术创作毫无干系。

问:你相信当代艺术品包含著精神能量吗?

答:优秀的当代艺术作品应该包含着强烈的精神能量,特别是一些非架上作品更是观念的直接传达载体。与古典艺术相比当代艺术互动性强更容易被观众接受,由于它的门槛低那么更加考验艺术家的独立思考能力,与古典艺术相比当代艺术的话题都显得沉重,对观看者的要求似乎更高,与古典艺术相比当代艺术的创作者更应该是一个思考者,而不是现实生活的照相机。